Who Is "At Risk" in a Work Zone?

Each year in the US, hundreds of workers are killed or seriously injured when vehicles crash through traffic control devices and enter a work zone. Workers are also struck by equipment operating within the work area. Whether it’s repairing streets, cleaning storm sewer catch basins, painting intersections, or rebuilding manholes, tasks that require workers to share the road with vehicles put them at risk.

Preventive Measures:

A traffic control plan must be developed before the work begins to guide drivers through and around work zones. The traffic control plan must include:

·         Advanced warning to drivers of the work being done ahead

·         Placement of traffic control devices to clearly mark the work zone and channel traffic through it

·         A return to normal traffic patterns as quickly, safely, and efficiently as possible

The traffic control plan must address these factors:

·         The type of roadway (number of lanes, divided or undivided highway, etc.)

·         Traffic volume and speed (approximate number of vehicles passing through and the speed of vehicles)

·         Type of work to be done and how long it will last (pothole repair, fix a broken water line, roadway line painting, etc.)

·         Type and number of traffic control devices and signs needed to make the work zone safe

Creating a buffer zone between workers and traffic is the best way to protect them. Set up detours or use barriers such as type 3 barricades or concrete barriers, which protect workers much better than cones or barrels.

Reducing the speed of traffic in work zones also provides a safer work environment for workers. Put down portable rumble strips or using a pilot car to guide traffic at reduced speeds through the work zone area.

Advanced Warning Signs should be located far enough in advance to allow vehicles to move efficiently and smoothly through work areas. They must clearly inform motorists of approaching activity and guide drivers through that activity.

All advanced warning signs must be:

·         Orange background with black lettering or symbols

·         Retro-reflective or illuminated if used after dark

·         4x4 feet if traffic moves at 45 mph or faster

·         3x3 feet if speeds are 40 mph or slower

·         7 feet above the road surface (measured to the bottom of the sign)

·         At least 1 foot above the road surface if the sign is portable

·         Less than 50% of the top two rails or not more than 33% of all rails if mounted on a barricade

Advance warning signs should be placed so as to give motorists enough time to react to the conditions they will find ahead of them. In general, the distance between the first warning sign and the work area should be increased the faster traffic is moving (Example: less than 40 mph = advanced warning sign 300 feet ahead; more than 45 mph = advanced warning sign 500 before work zone with at least 2 signs before entering work zone; add 100 feet for every 5 mph over 45 mph).

Traffic Control Devices such as cones, drums, barricades, tubular markers, and pavement markers are commonly used to alter or channel normal traffic flow. They alert drivers of work activities ahead and provide smooth and gradual traffic movement from one lane to the next. Cones, drums, and other devices must be made of lightweight materials and give way when struck by a vehicle. They must not break apart or be capable of penetrating the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The material used to weigh down devices (ballast) to prevent them from being easily blown over must also be made of materials that will cause only minimal damage to vehicles. Drums must be at least 3 feet tall and 18 inches wide, they must be orange and have 2 white alternating retro-reflective stripes. Stripes must be between 4 to 6 inches in width. The tops of the drums must be closed to prevent accumulation of debris. Steel drums are prohibited.  Barricades are of 3 types and can be portable or fixed: Type 1 must be at least 3 feet tall with one rail 2 feet in length; Type 2 must be at least 3 feet tall with 2 rails 2 feet in length; Type 3 must be at least 5 feet tall, have 3 rails at least 4 feet long. The rails on all 3 types must be between 8 and 12 inches wide. They should be equipped with warning lights and the lights should be either steady burn or flashing. The stripes on barricades must be alternating orange and white with reflective striping. The stripes should slope down at a 45-degree angle in the direction traffic is moving. Striping should be at least 4 inches wide (If the rails are more than 3 feet long the stripes should be 6 inches wide.) There should be a minimum of 270 square inches of retro-reflective tape for on-coming traffic.

Laws to Protect Workers

The US Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration have issued the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). OSHA enforces the MUTCD and it is part of OSHA’s standards for the construction industry (29 CFR 1926.200, 29 CFR 1926.203). For state and local workers not covered by OSHA, the Department of Transportation requires that the standard be followed on all public roadways.

It is the municipality’s responsibility and duty to comply with these standards to protect both workers performing duties in and on roadways, as well as drivers and pedestrians using those roadways.


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Work Zone Safety According to OSHA

Traffic incidents and workers struck by vehicles or equipment account for the highest number of fatal work injuries in America according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Emergency responders, clean-up crews, utility workers, and construction workers working in areas where there are moving vehicles and traffic are exposed to being hit by a moving vehicle. Work zones are used to move traffic in an approved direction and are typically identified by signs, cones, barricades, and barriers. Municipal workers and citizens are to be protected by planning work zones (areas where construction and maintenance are being conducted) and using the proper protective and communication devices.

There must be a traffic control plan for the movement of vehicles in areas where there are workers conducting other tasks. Drivers, workers on foot, and pedestrians must be able to see and understand the routes they are to follow. The authority in charge (federal, state, or local) will determine the internal traffic control plan within the construction worksite. When there are several projects, coordinated vehicle routes and communication between contractors will reduce incidents where people are struck by a vehicle.

Standard highway signs for information, speed limits, and advanced warnings for work zones will assist drivers in identifying such directives as “do not enter”, “road/lane closed”, and “reduced speed”. Using standard highway signs for construction or maintenance work sites will assist workers in recognizing the route they are to use at the work site.

Standard traffic control devices, signals, and message boards will instruct drivers to follow a path away from where work is being done. The authority in charge will determine the approved traffic control devices such as cones, barrels, barricades or candlestick posts that will be used as part of the traffic control plan. Use these same types of devices inside the work zone.

Various styles of concrete, water, sand, collapsible barriers, crash cushions, and truck mounted attenuators should be used to limit motorist intrusions into a construction work zone.

Flaggers and others providing temporary traffic control must wear high visibility clothing with a background of fluorescent orange-red or yellow-green and retroreflective material of orange, yellow, white, silver, or yellow-green. In areas of traffic movement, this personal protective equipment (PPE) will make a worker visible for at least 1,000 feet, so the worker can be seen from any direction, and make the worker stand out from the background. Make sure to check labels or packaging to ensure the garments are performance class 2 or 3.

Drivers should be warned in advance with signs that there will be a flagger ahead. Flaggers should use STOP-SLOW paddles with reflectorized panels. The STOP side should be octagonal in shape and be red with white letters, the SLOW side should also be octagonal shaped with orange coloring and black letters.

Flagger stations should be illuminated. Lighting for workers on foot and equipment operators is to be at least 5-foot candles or greater. Where available lighting is not sufficient, flares or chemical lighting should be used. Glare affecting workers and motorists must be controlled or eliminated.

Flaggers should be trained/certified and use the signaling methods required by the authority in charge. Workers on foot, equipment operators, and drivers in internal work zones need to understand routes that construction vehicles will be using. Equipment operators and signal workers need to know the hand signals used for the work site. Operators and workers on foot need to know the visibility limits and “blind spots” for each vehicle on site. Workers need to be made aware of the ways shiftwork and nightwork may affect their performance.

Finally, seatbelts and Rollover Protections Systems must be used on equipment and vehicles in and off the work site.

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July 2018 Risk and Safety Newsletter

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May 2018 - Risk and Safety Newsletter

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Dealing With Poison Ivy

The grass is growing, flowers are blooming, and creepy crawly plants are beginning their annual attempt to take control of our municipal parks and grounds around buildings. Many cities and towns hire summer labor to assist in controlling this invasion. Are these employees receiving the vital training they require to protect themselves from exposure to poison ivy? Do they know what to wear? Can your staff identify the plant? Do they know how to medically treat an exposure to poison ivy?

At first glance one might not think preventing or treating exposure to poisonous plants is that important, but contact with poison ivy can cost an employee and the employer several days of lost productivity due to time off, distraction from normal daily tasks, and medical costs. The following are some basic tips which can be used to educate your summer staff about how they can prevent injury or illness due to exposure to poison ivy.

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Knowing what poison ivy looks like is key to preventing exposure. Also important is determining how to safeguard oneself from physical exposure to the sticky resin (urushiol), which causes the irritation and blistering symptoms of contact with the plant.

Remember these characteristics to help you correctly identify poison ivy:

·         Found around lakes, creeks and streams in wooded areas

·         Small trailing shrub with a hairy rope-like vine or a freestanding shrub

·         Normally has three leaflets (groups of leaves all on the same small stem coming off a larger main stem)

·         Leaves are not consistent. Some may be smooth on the edges, while others may have lobes.

·         Generally at least one of the leaves has a pronounced lobe that sticks out like a thumb. This makes the leaf look similar to a mitten.

·         Leaves are green in the summer and red in the fall. The plant also produces small yellow or green flowers and white berries.


Upon identifying the plant prepare to deal with it without exposing yourself to the urushiol. Most cities and towns want this pesky plant removed from parks and grounds around buildings so take the necessary precautions to remove or at least control it.

1)   Wear protective clothing such as a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, socks, at least ankle high boots, and gloves. If you are planning on burning the plants (make sure to contact your local fire department for burning regulations in your region of Oklahoma) take them away from populated areas and wear a facemask. The urushiol can be carried airborne in the smoke and ash and can be inhaled, causing an exposure to the mouth and airway.

2)   After working with or in the plants, immediately remove clothing with protective disposable gloves. Wash the clothes immediately and wipe down (with alcohol and water) any tools used while working in the plants, your boots, and any materials which came in contact with the contaminated clothes and tools. Placing contaminated clothes in a hamper or leaving contaminated shoes and equipment in a place where others can touch them could cause them to contract poison ivy.

3)   Thoroughly wash the exposed areas using warm water and Dawn dish soap as soon as possible after a potential exposure. The urushiol (oil from the plant) will bond to the skin and cause irritation and blisters within 6 hours. Wash and rinse the exposed areas 3 times with the dish soap to greatly diminish or even prevent a rash or blisters. If this does not help, use traditional methods to treat the rash or, in extreme cases, see a physician.


If you did not clean up quickly enough or your skin is so sensitive that cleaning didn’t help, redness and swelling will appear within 12 to 48 hours. Blisters and itching will follow. The blisters are not contagious, nor can the fluid from them further spread the rash on the affected person’s body. Further spreading is probably due to the urushiol absorbing at different rates into the skin. However, it is recommended not to scratch the blisters because your hands could have germs on them that might cause an infection. The rash and blisters will disappear in 14 to 20 days, but most people require relief from the itching and seek some form of treatment. For mild cases, wet compresses or soaking in cool water may help. Oral antihistamines can also relieve the itching. Over-the-counter topical corticosteroids or hydrocortisone such as Cortaid or Lanacort are safe and effective ways to temporarily relieve itching. For severe cases seek counsel from a dermatologist or physician as soon as possible after exposure.

One final word of caution- Poison ivy can be contracted year-round. The resin (urushiol) does not dry up in the winter. Also, dead poison ivy may still contain the resin. Cases have been reported by researchers where rashes have occurred from exposure to plants that were in specimen jars for up to five years. Remember to train your summer staff before sending them out. It can save you and them time, money, and discomfort.

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Caring for Oklahoma Municipal Cemeteries

For many, this will be the first year to honor their loved one on Memorial Day.  Ribbons, flowers, flags, balloons, and crosses decorate resting places and celebrate those held dear.  Although the decorations begin appearing the last weekend of May, preparation of the cemetery began months ago.  When family or friends visit, all they will notice is the condition of their loved one’s grave. You want to make sure that what they see is a clean, well-maintained site.

In maintaining the cemetery, the single most damaging lawn maintenance activity (to headstones) is mowing.  In addition, mowing is frequently the single largest cemetery expenditure.  It is critical that lawn mowing is done in a manner the protects the monuments, as well as the lawn.  The most serious issue is the routine removal of grass in the immediate vicinity of gravestones and tombs.  The best practice is to mow to within 12-inches of markers and finish the work using hand shears.  This approach, however, is almost universally cost prohibitive.  Another approach is the permanent removal of grass around the bases of stones.  The solution is usually discouraged since it creates an unnatural and unattractive landscape and its long-term maintenance creates additional costs and threats to the stone (especially since there will be an inclination to use weed killer as a simple solution).

The best workable solution is to use no power mower within 12-inches of the markers.  Weed whips (rotating nylon filament trimmers) may then be used – with extreme care – to finish the job up to the stone.  For these procedures to cause minimal damage, four precautions are absolutely critical:

1.      The maintenance crew must be carefully trained and closely supervised.  They must understand that the historic markers are very fragile and that the activities used on residential or commercial grounds are unacceptable for cemeteries.

2.      Only walk behind mowers should be used – riding mowers offer too little control and operators are too inclined to take chances in an effort to speed the mowing up and get on to another job.

3.      All mowers – even when used no closer than 23 inches – must have bumper guards installed to offer additional protection.  This can be achieved by using cable ties to attach closed cell foam, such as that used for the insulation of pipes, to the sides, front, and rear of all mowers.

4.      The nylon string in the trimmers must be the lightest gauge possible – no heavier than 0.09 inch.

Perhaps the best protection from mower damage, however, is the active involvement of the superintendent in the oversight of landscape maintenance operations – inspections by the superintendent should be made during and after mowing operations.

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Mowing Risk Management Tips

Municipalities are responsible for maintaining cemeteries, parks and recreation areas, as well as the grounds around municipal buildings. Employees are often mowing, weeding, and maintaining the properties with riding mowers, push lawn mowers, tractors, and weed trimmers. This equipment has the potential to injure operators or bystanders. In addition, objects propelled by the blades or cords of the equipment could also injure bystanders or damage property like headstones in cemeteries, or vehicles parked in a lot or driving by a city maintained median.

Injuries to equipment operators may be reduced with proper use and maintenance of the equipment, coupled with wearing the proper personal protective equipment (PPE). Some injuries associated with the operation of lawn equipment include: cuts and scratches on the lower legs, dust and debris getting into eyes, hand and forearm lacerations, foot injuries and amputations, or back and shoulder strains. Fatalities from falls or rollovers while operating riding mowers are another catastrophic consideration.

Here are some safety tips to consider while using lawn mowers and tractors. Before beginning to mow make sure the area is clear of debris (sticks, rocks, cans, etc.), look for holes or depressions, and identify and mark any large semi-buried rocks or stumps that could damage the mower or cause a rollover. Do not mow while people or animals are in the mowing area. If anyone enters the mowing area while you are mowing stop and shutdown the blade until they pass and are safely out of reach of a flying projectile (about 50 feet). Mow in dry conditions only, not only can wet grass clog the mower, but wet conditions can cause the ground to become unstable causing the mower to slip and slide. Plan to mow during the day. Never mow at night when visibility is limited. Check the weather forecast - never mow during a thunderstorm. Make sure the grass deflectors, blade covers, and other safety guards are in place. If the mower or tractor has a ROPS (rollover protective system) make sure it is in the “up” position and locked in place. Never operate mowers when sleepy or ill.

Match the slope to the mower. If slopes are too steep to mow with a riding mower, use a push mower. With riding mowers, mow up and down a slope – preferably only mowing down the slope and driving (without mowing) back up the slope. When push mowing a slope, mow horizontally across the slope. This will help prevent the operator’s feet from sliding under the blades if the mower or operator slips. Rear engine mowers are fairly unstable and are not recommended to use on slopes, even vertically, due to tip and rollover hazards.

While mowing, do not allow children near the work area, since any kind of accident can occur if the operator is unaware and does not see those who might be attracted by the machine and mowing activity. Never assume children will remain where they were last seen. Keep an eye out for delivery trucks and other vehicles when crossing parking lots and driveways. Arrange the mowing path to avoid propelling objects toward people, vehicles, or buildings with windows. Keep the discharge chute opening lowered at all times and be sure the area is clear of people and pets before operating. If someone approaches your mowing area, stop the blade until they are safely passed. If they approach you on the mower, stop the blade and turn the mower off. Never carry any passengers on the mower or tractor; it is “operator only” aboard the equipment.

Push mowers are designed to be pushed forward. Pulling them backwards increases the risk of accidental contact with the blade. Occasionally, there may be a need to pull the mower backwards while maneuvering, but otherwise try not to mow pulling backwards. On riding mowers and tractors try not to mow in reverse unless absolutely necessary and look in the direction you are traveling if mowing in reverse. Never put your hands or feet into the mower to remove grass or debris. Even with the motor turned off, the blade remains engaged. Use a stick or broom handle to remove obstructions (not your hands). If using a bagger, stop the blade before emptying the bag. Stop the engine before reaching into the discharge chute. Keep movements on slopes slow and gradual. Do not make sudden changes in speed or direction, which could cause a tip or rollover. Do not mow near drop-offs, ditches, or embankments. The mower could suddenly rollover if the wheel goes over the edge or if it caves in. Tall grass can hide objects, holes, or bumps. Go slowly and use caution when mowing through areas where there may be tree stumps or semi-buried rocks hidden by tall grass. If the mower strikes an object, stop, turn off the engine and inspect the mower and blade for damage. If damaged, do not use it until it is repaired. Turn off the blade and wait for it to stop before crossing gravel paths, roads, alleys, or trails. Always stop the blade before removing the grass catcher or unclogging the discharge chute. Before refueling, always allow the engine to cool down a few minutes and never smoke while refueling. Do not run a gasoline or diesel engine indoors without proper ventilation. Shut off the engine and remove the key before leaving the mower unattended, even briefly. When working on the mower, remove the sparkplug wire to prevent an accidental startup. It is especially important while removing the blade – turning the blade bolt with a wrench can turn the blade drive shaft and crank the engine, causing the mower to start. Wear personal protective equipment including work boots, long pants, a long-sleeved shirt, hearing protection, and shatterproof safety glasses or goggles.

Taking these precautions can greatly improve your risk management during mowing season. Fewer windows will be broken, vehicles dented, headstones marred, and people injured if we just take the time to “think safe”.

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Weed Trimmer Safety Tips

Weeds have a tendency to sprout alongside walkways, buildings, and cemetery headstones on municipal grounds. Few lawn mowers can safely get into these edges and corners as needed to cut weeds and tall grass. A weed trimmer is the best way to reach these spots. Consider the following safety tips for using weed trimmers.

Prepare the site – walk the area to be trimmed prior to starting. Remove debris, sticks, stones, and other obstacles or potential hazards. Make sure there are no people or pets in the area and stay alert to anyone or anything entering your workspace while trimming. Prepare the weed trimmer by checking the safety guards and shields, making sure they are in place. Verify there is enough nylon line in the spool. Fill the fuel tank and always allow the engine to cool down before refueling.

When trimming, keep in mind that lawn trimmers can throw objects at high speeds, so avoid working near people, vehicles, and delicate building structures. Never attempt to adjust or repair a weed trimmer while the engine is running. Keep the line short so it does not extend past the guard on the head of the weed trimmer. Keep one hand on the handle and one hand on the shaft of the trimmer to provide greater control. If provided, use a shoulder strap for support to help with weight and vibration of the weed trimmer. This can help prevent back, shoulder, and arm fatigue or strains. When trimming, keep the throttle at full speed, but be able to maintain control of the trimmer. Swing the trimmer in a slow smooth arcing motion. Move the trimmer forward and step forward to cover more ground. Don’t over extend the trimmer with just your arms or bending forward, as this could cause excess fatigue.

Watch for hidden obstacles like wires, fence posts, rocks, or bricks that could cause the trimmer to bounce backwards or entangle the line and jam the trimmer. This could cause injury to the operator or damage the equipment. Wear work boots, hearing protection, eye and face protection, long pants and long-sleeved shirts to protect your body.

Working outside, other personnel safety precautions include dealing with weather and natural conditions. Consider the following additional safety tips while using weed trimmers. If you are working near a street or roadway, wear a reflective vest. Be aware of nearby traffic and parked vehicles and position yourself so you won’t accidentally throw objects into traffic or vehicles. Don’t listen to music with headphones, as it can be a distraction and add to noise exposure. Use sun block and wear a hat to protect from sun exposure. Use an insect repellant with at least 10% DEET to protect from mosquito and tick bites. Stay hydrated, drinking about 8 ounces of water every 20 minutes. Be able to identify and avoid poisonous plants like poison ivy, poison sumac, and nettles. Watch out for venomous spiders, caterpillars, and snakes. Keep a first-aid kit handy and include EpiPens and a snakebite kit in the kit.

The key to safe operation of weed trimmers varies; select the proper type of weed trimmer for the job. Make sure operators are properly trained to use the equipment. Survey the work area and identify or remove obstacles and hazards. Don’t work around people or pets. Inspect and maintain your equipment frequently and follow the manufacturer’s maintenance and safety instructions. Wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). Compliance with these safety considerations can help better protect workers, citizens, and the municipality from injury, property damage, and tort claims.

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Risk & Safety News: Emergency Response Issue

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Emergency Action Plan Basics

The following are basic things to be prepared for and do in specific emergency situations:


  • Wildfires can occur anytime or anywhere, but the potential is always higher during periods with little to no rainfall; high winds can contribute to escalating wildfire risks
  • Make a wildfire plan – know where to go and which evacuation routes to use to get there
  • Make or restock your emergency preparedness kit; include flashlight, batteries, cash, first-aid supplies, food, and water
  • Stay tuned to alerts via phone, radio, or television for updates, emergency instructions, or evacuation orders

Prepare before a wildfire

  • Keep a clear area approximately 30 feet away from buildings. Clear away anything that will burn like wood, leaves, brush, and other landscaping
  • Create fire breaks such as driveways, walkways, and tree/bush free lawns
  • Regularly clean roofs and gutters of combustible debris
  • Connect a garden hose long enough to reach any area around the building and fill large containers with water
  • Review your insurance policy and prepare or update building contents

During a wildfire

  • Be prepared to evacuate on short notice
  • If you see a wildfire and haven’t received any alerts or evacuation orders, call 9-1-1 and report it; don’t assume someone else has already called it in
  • If ordered to evacuate, do it immediately and make sure to notify someone where you are going and when you arrive
  • If you or someone has been burned, call 9-1-1 or seek help immediately; keep the burned area cool and covered to reduce the chance of infection or further injury

After a wildfire

  • Return to facilities only when authorities say it is safe
  • Maintain a fire-watch for several hours checking for smoke, sparks, or hidden embers that may reignite
  • Use caution when going through burned areas; hazards may still exist including hot spots and potential gas leaks or electric lines
  • During cleanup wear a NIOSH certified respirator (dust mask) and wet debris down to minimize breathing ash particles
  • Discard any food that has been exposed to heat, smoke, or soot
  • Do not use water that may have been contaminated to wash dishes, brush teeth, prepare food, wash hands, or make ice
  • Photograph damage for insurance purposes


Oklahoma has one of the highest number of tornadoes in the U.S. and they can occur anytime during the year.

Preparing for a tornado

  • Identify safe rooms, storm shelters, or other potential protection locations where you can go quickly for safety when there is a warning or approaching tornado
  • Have an emergency kit handy with flashlight and batteries, water, snacks, blankets, weather radio, and first-aid kit
  • Be alert to changing weather conditions; Look for approaching storms; look for danger signs:
    •            Dark, often greenish sky
    •            Large hail
    •            Large, dark, low hanging clouds (particularly if they appear to rotate)
    •            Loud roaring noise
    •            Flying debris in the air

Know the terms:

Tornado Watch – conditions warrant the possibility that tornados could occur

Tornado Warning – a tornado has been sighted or indicated by weather radar. Take shelter immediately

After a tornado

  • If you are trapped, do not move about or attempt to move objects; tap on a pipe or the wall to help rescuers locate you
  • Listen for updates and instructions from local officials
  • Check in with family or friends via texting or social media
  • Watch out for sharp dangerous debris and downed power lines or gas leaks
  • Stay out of damaged buildings until authorities deem them safe
  • Wear protective clothing, dust masks, and gloves during clean up; don’t attempt to move heavy debris by yourself
  • Do what you can to prevent further damage to property (putting up tarps, etc.) since insurance may not cover additional damage that occurs after the storm
  • If the building is without power use flashlights or battery powered lanterns rather than candles or fuel lanterns
  • Take photos of damaged property; keep a list of property in buildings in a safe location like the cloud


Flooding can occur in Oklahoma during every season, but spring holds our biggest threat. It is particularly important to be prepared for flooding in low-lying areas near rivers, creeks, and lakes.

Basic Flooding Safety Tips:

  • If you approach flooding streets when driving; Turn Around, Don’t Drown! Avoid walking or driving in floodwaters
  • Don’t drive over bridges that have fast moving water. Floodwaters can scour foundation material from around the footings and make the bridges unstable
  • Just 6 inches of moving water can knock you down and sweep you away; 1 foot of moving water can wash your vehicle away
  • If there is a chance of flash flooding, move immediately to higher ground
  • If floodwaters rise around your vehicle but the water is not moving, abandon your vehicle and get to higher ground.  Do not leave the vehicle if the water is moving
  • Avoid parking along creeks and rivers during heavy rains. They can flood quickly with little warning

Terms to know:

Flood Watch = Be Aware, conditions are right for flooding or flash flooding in your area

Flood Warning = Take Action, flooding is either happening or will shortly


  • Turn on the TV or radio to receive the latest updates on weather and emergency instructions
  • Know where to go in case you need to seek higher ground in a hurry
  • Make or restock an emergency kit. Include: flashlight, batteries, first-aid supplies, dry clothing and blankets, water, and snacks

After a flood:

  • Return only when authorities say it is safe
  • Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded; watch out for debris. Floodwaters often erode roads, walkways, and foundations of buildings
  • Do not attempt to drive through areas that are still flooded
  • Avoid standing water as it may be electrically charged from underground or downed utility lines
  • Photograph damaged property for insurance purposes


Earthquakes are unexpected, sudden, rapid shaking of the earth caused by breaking and shifting subterranean rock. After the quake aftershocks may occur causing further damage.

Preparing before an earthquake:

  • Secure items that could fall or move and cause injuries or damage (bookshelves, mirrors, light fixtures, etc.)
  • Practice how to “Drop, Cover, Seek Shelter and Hold On” drop to the ground, cover your head and neck, crawl to a place where you can be protected (under a table) and hold on
  • Properly store documents. Keep water and first-aid supplies on hand as well as food, clothing, blankets, flashlight and batteries
  • Plan where to go, should an earthquake occur, and have an alternative way to communicate with your family

During an earthquake:

  • Drop, Cover, Seek Shelter and Hold On
  • Stay where you are until the shaking stops. Don’t run outside. Do not get in a doorway as this does not provide protection. Be very careful, move slowly and test your footing as you move into an open area
  • If you are outside when the shaking starts, move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires. Drop, Cover, Seek Shelter and Hold On until the shaking stops

After the earthquake:

  • When the shaking stops, look around. If the building is damaged and there is a clear path to safety, leave the building and go to an open space away from damaged areas
  • If you are trapped, do not move about or kick up dust
  • If you have a cell phone use it to call or text for help
  • Tap on a pipe or wall to draw the attention of rescuers
  • Once in the clear, if you are not injured, provide assistance to those in need however you can
  • Use extreme caution during post-disaster cleanup. Wear protective clothing, work gloves, and sturdy boots
  • Be prepared for aftershocks. Drop, Cover, Seek Shelter and Hold-on

Active Shooter:

Don’t think terrorism, bomb threats, and active shooter incidents only happen in big cities. They can occur anywhere and anytime. Have a plan in place and train your employees on what to do if confronted with an active shooter.


  • Train employees to be aware of their surroundings and to observe what is going on with people (their demeanor, remarks, body language) that makes them uncomfortable and ill-at-ease. Report suspicious behavior to authorities
  • Identify the two nearest exits anywhere you go, and have an escape path in mind or find good places to hide
  • Understand how you would provide for individuals with disabilities or other access and functional needs

During an Active Shooter incident: 3 Options - Run, Hide, Fight

  • Run - escape if possible; getting away from the shooter(s) is the top priority
  • Leave your belongings and get away
  • Help others escape, if possible, but evacuate regardless of whether others agree to follow
  • Warn and prevent individuals from entering an area where an active shooter may be
  • Call 9-1-1 once you get safe, and describe the shooter(s), location, and weapons
  • Hide - get out of the shooter’s view and stay quiet. Lock and block doors, close blinds, turn off lights, turn off your cell phone’s ring and vibrate options
  • Don’t hide in groups.  Instead, spread out along walls or hide separately; don’t make it easy for the shooter
  • Try to communicate with police silently through text messaging or social media, or put a sign in a window
  • Stay in place until law enforcement gives you an all clear or comes for you
  • Make sure your hiding place provides you with protection if shots are fired through the door or walls
  • Fight - as an absolute last resort. Commit to your actions, be as aggressive as possible against the shooter(s)
  • Recruit others to ambush the shooter using makeshift weapons (chairs, flagpoles, fire extinguishers, scissors, whatever you can find as a weapon)
  • Be prepared to cause severe or lethal injury to the shooter

After the Active Shooter incident:

  • Keep hands visible and empty; know that law enforcement’s first task is to end the threat; they may have to pass the injured along the way until they have secured the area
  • Follow law enforcement instructions and evacuate in the direction they come from
  • Officers will be armed with rifles, shotguns, and handguns; they may use pepper spray or tear gas to control a situation
  • Officers will shout commands and may push individuals to the ground for their safety
  • Consider seeking professional counseling for you and your family to cope with long-term effects of the trauma
  • Take care of yourself first, then you may be able to help the wounded before first responders arrive
  • While waiting for first responders, provide first-aid, apply direct pressure to wounds and use tourniquets if you are trained to do so
  • Place wounded people on their sides if they are unconscious and keep them warm

Many municipal law enforcement departments are providing training for staff and citizens concerning “Active Shooter” incidents. For more information contact your local police department to find out how a training may be arranged.

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