Workers operating riding mowers face serious safety issues. Their employers need to make sure the equipment in use is designed and maintained with safety in mind. Employers must make sure that workers are trained to avoid hazardous surroundings. Finally, the employer must ensure that mowing operations are performed safely.
Employers Must Ensure Equipment Safety
Use and maintain all available safety equipment. Pay attention to the following points:
• Some riding mowers are designed by their manufacturer to be equipped with a roll-over protective system (ROPS). The ROPS can either be standard or optional equipment.
• If the mower a worker will be using does not have a ROPS, look for unused bolt holes or brackets near the seat or frame to see if the mower has the capacity to be equipped with a ROPS. Do not operate any mower that was intended to be equipped with a ROPS without the ROPS in place. In many cases, retrofit kits are available. Contact the manufacturer to see if there is a kit for the mowers you are using.
• Mowers with a ROPS should also be equipped with seat belts. Provide and use approved seat belt assemblies on all riding lawn mowers on which a ROPS has been installed.
• Where vertical clearance does not allow for a ROPS to be in the raised position, the ROPS may be temporarily placed in the lowered position. Also, workers should not wear a seat belt while operating a mower with the ROPS in the lowered position. Return the ROPS to the raised position as soon as the mower is in an area where the vertical clearance allows its use and reconnect the seat belt.
• Equip riding mowers with an “operator presence control system”. This system shuts off the blades when the operator dismounts the machine or rises out of the seat.
• Equip riding mowers with interlocks that ensure the engine cannot start while the mower is in gear or if the blade is engaged. Inspect mowers to ensure the “operator presence control system” and all safety features are always in place and operable.
• Keep riding mowers in good working order, and inspect them periodically for unsecurely or incorrectly attached ROPS and seat belts.
• Mower operators should use a standard checklist to do a general inspection of the equipment before use. For example, the checklist should include checking tire pressure and checking for missing or damaged safety guards.
• Experienced service personnel should inspect mowers for necessary safety features and overall maintenance at least annually. Only qualified personnel should service and repair riding mowers.
While it is essential to have the proper safety equipment in place on riding mowers, you should think of that as just the beginning of your safety program.
Determining the Safety of the Surroundings
Employers should be familiar with the conditions of the terrain on which their mowers are being used. They should ensure their workers take the following precautions:
• Do not operate mowers on slopes that exceed the “angle limits” specified by the manufacturer. Look for a label on the mower for this information or check the owner’s manual.
• When the manufacturer’s instructions are not available or do not specify the angle limits for operating on slopes, evaluate the terrain and slope conditions to ensure the mower is operated in a safe manner. Avoid mowing on slopes that exceed 15 degrees if there is no other information available.
• Use a slope indicator, aka clinometer or inclinometer, if you need one. These are used to determine slope angles and can be attached to equipment, used as an application on a mobile device, or there are printable versions that can be downloaded online.
• Always remove the key when you are leaving a mower unattended, but never leave mowers unattended on a slope. After turning off the mower, the operator should set the brake, remove the key, and wait to make sure all moving parts have stopped before leaving the area. The operator should not assume moving parts will stop.
• Do not operate mowers in areas where the drive wheels are within five feet, as measured from the outside wheel edge, of unprotected edges of retaining walls, embankments, levees, ditches, culverts, excavations, or similar locations that present an overturn or roll-over hazard. Use a string trimmer or push mower in these areas.
• When it is necessary to operate riding mowers near ponds, creeks, lakes, canals, sloughs, golf course water hazards, or similar bodies of water, evaluate the terrain and any slope conditions. Establish a safety zone to ensure the mower is operated at a safe distance from such hazards.
Employers are responsible for providing workers with training before they can operate any lawn mowing/landscaping machinery. Training ensures each operator is competent to operate the machinery safely. Training must be provided in a language and vocabulary that workers can understand. Training should cover topics on the safe operation of specific riding mowers and other equipment that worker will be using. Never assume a worker knows how to use a piece of equipment or take their word for it that they know how to use it. Train them and make sure they are competent with operating the equipment. Training topics include:
• A review of all safety devices to ensure that ROPS, guards, seat belts, and shields are securely in place and properly used.
• The importance of surveying the terrain and picking up hazards before mowing.
• How to identify obstacles in the mowing path, such as large immovable rocks, man-made hazards, like signs and trash receptacles, tree stumps, etc., and areas where the use of riding mowers is prohibited.
• Reading and understanding the operations, maintenance, limitations, and warning sections of the operator’s manual.
• Speed control, steering, and maneuvering such as:
Decrease speed when the mower is traveling down slopes or around sharp corners to prevent tipping.
Be particularly alert when backing up or while operating in low-light conditions.
Do not mow from side-to-side when operating mowers on unlevel or sloped ground. Always mow slopes in the up-and-down direction.
• A review of stability and roll-over hazards associated with operating mowers on surfaces, terrain, or areas that could pose a risk. Locations that present a roll-over risk include loading ramps, wet surfaces, slopes, and areas near drop-offs, retaining walls, embankments, streams, bodies of water, unprotected ditches, culverts, and excavations.
• Employees should be trained to:
Use all required personal protective equipment (PPE) at all times: hearing and head protection, safety glasses, work boots, etc. Avoid wearing jewelry and loose-fitting clothing that could be entangled in moving parts. Wear long pants.
Never carry passengers. Riding mowers are one-person machines.
Always start the mower from the driver’s seat. Never start the machine while standing beside it. Keep both feet on the machine at all times while it is running.
Never place the mower in motion until the operator is ready. Putting the mower in gear unintentionally could jerk it forward without warning.
Never mount or dismount a mower while it is running, as there may be enough space for the operator’s toes to pass under the housing and be struck by the blade. Properly shut down the mower before dismounting.
Never stop or start a riding mower suddenly when it is going up or down hill. Avoid all sudden stops, starts, or turns.
The safe operation of a riding mower is similar to the safe operation of a car/truck – drive defensively and expect the unexpected. Employers should train workers to operate the mower as if there were no ROPS in place. A protective structure is not unlimited in its ability to protect the operator. His best safety guard is using his head and making safe decisions.
Retraining and evaluation are necessary to ensure workers maintain their competency to operate mowers safely. Provide refresher courses to workers when:
An operator has been observed operating a mower in an unsafe manner.
An operator has suffered an injury or been involved in a near-miss incident.
An operator receives a new job assignment that includes operating a mower or machinery with which the operator is unfamiliar.
An operator receives a new job assignment that includes mowing on terrain or surfaces that present unfamiliar hazards.
As an administrator or supervisor, it is your responsibility to make sure your employees know the hazards of the job and how to do the job safely. Remember to properly train and evaluate your workers.
(based on information from the US Dept. of Labor)
Lawn Mower & Weed Eater Safety
Operating lawn mowers or weed eaters is a necessity for municipalities. At the same time, they present certain dangers if the operator doesn’t know how to properly operate them or the proper precautions necessary to protect themselves and the people around their work area.
General Safety Precautions
Prior to operating a mower or weed eater, operators should first read and understand the operator’s manual. This will give them a basic knowledge of how the tool works and proper operating instructions. Operators should also take time to consider the appropriate protective clothing. These items include:
• Ear and eye protection
• Gloves to protect hands
• Thick footwear with good traction (approved work boots are preferred)
• Long pants and long-sleeved shirts that are somewhat tight fitting
Prior to starting the machine, make sure other people and animals are a safe distance away. Next, make sure there are no sticks, stones, wire, or other objects in the lawn that could become projectiles. Inspect the machine to ensure all the guards, shields, and belts are in the proper place and in good working condition. Fuel equipment cautiously, and make sure the fuel is stored in an appropriate container away from ignition sources. Never attempt to fuel a weed eater or mower while it is running or still hot (allow 5 minutes for parts to cool down before refueling). Remember, no smoking while fueling. Keep all body parts away from exhaust areas to prevent burns.
If you make any repairs or adjustments, make sure the engine is turned off and pull the sparkplug before you begin. If anyone else will be operating the equipment, make sure they have been properly trained and deemed competent to use the machines.
Mower Safety Precautions
There are 4 main types of mower accidents of which operators should be aware: overturns, propelled objects, contact with rotating blades, and running over a victim with a riding mower. To help avoid accidents, there are some simple precautions the operator can take.
• Before engaging the blade, make sure you know how to operate all aspects of the mower. This may include taking a practice run with the blade disengaged first.
• Never allow passengers on a riding mower. This is true even for larger commercial riding mowers/tractors.
• When possible, move forward not backward. Many new mowers have a safety device that disengages the blade when traveling in reverse. If you go backwards pay special attention to potential hazards such as holes, drop-offs, buildings, and other obstacles in and around the mowing area.
• Never leave the mower running or unattended.
• Disengage the blade before getting off the machine. Many new models have safety devices that automatically disengage the blade or shut off the mower when the operator gets up from the seat. Do not disengage this safety device.
• Turn the mower off and pull the sparkplug wire prior to repairs or maintenance.
• When mowing on a slope, use caution, slow down, and avoid making sharp turns. It is best to mow steep slopes up and down rather than across the slope on a riding mower. Use a push mower across slopes, never up and down. Never mow a slope that is so steep your tires and feet have no traction. Use a weed eater if it is necessary to mow that area.
• Only operate a riding mower from the driver’s seat. Do not attempt to walk beside or behind it and push over difficult terrain.
Weed Eater Safety Precautions
• When fueling the weed eater, make sure you have the correct fuel mixture. Most weed eaters take a mixture of fuel and two-cycle engine oil.
• When you start the weed eater, make sure you have good balance and footing. Hold the machine with two hands, and make sure you are in an open area away from other people.
• The cutting part of the weed eater should never be raised above waist height.
• The speed of the string should never be faster than what is required to cut vegetation.
• Do not operate a weed eater in the immediate vicinity of others; debris can fly over 30 feet from your location. Give at least 50 feet when people or pets approach your work area. Stop the machine until they are safely past.
• Keep in mind it is better to weed eat an embankment or slope, rather than trying to mow it.
• When you have completed weed eating, let the machine idle a few minutes to cool down before shutting it off.
• Supervisors must make sure operators understand the machines they are using and are competent in their operation as well as safety issues.
(based on a Loss Control Bulletin from the American National General Insurance Company)